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The National Building Code of the Philippines provide that “materials for building construction must have a certain quality and physical properties to be structurally sound”.

  1. The materials must be able to carry load or weight without changing shape permanently.
  2. Deformation of the materials may occur when load is applied, but must return to its original position when load is removed.
  3. If the material is not elastic and deformation is present in the structure after removal of load, repeated loading and unloading will eventually increase the deformation to the point where structure would become useless
  4. All structural materials must possess elasticity within a certain defined range of loading. If the loading is increased above that range, two types of behavior may occur, brittle and plasticity.
  5. When brittle, the materials will break suddenly. When plastic, the material will flow to a certain load that will ultimately result to fracture.
  6. The ultimate strength of a material is measured by the stress at which fracture or failure occur.

The second important factor of a building material is its stiffness. This property is defined by the elastic modulus of the ratio of the stress to the strain. The elastic modulus therefore is a measure of material resistance to deformation under load. For two materials of equal area under the same load, the one with higher elastic modulus has the smaller deformation.

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